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CO2海底貯留 インドネシア洪水 環境関連注目記事 19年4月28日

CO2海底貯留、商用へ前進 東芝が大規模実験へ 日本経済新聞 19.4.28  

火力発電所が排出する大量の二酸化炭素(CO2)を回収し、海底に埋める技術の開発が進んでいる。温暖化対策に貢献するとして米国などでは内陸で設備の導入が進むが、海に囲まれ国土が狭い日本では海底貯留方式が主流となる。東芝は三川発電所(福岡県大牟田市)で2020年夏にも1日あたり500トンのCO2を取り出す大規模実証実験を始める。商業利用を見すえてデータを蓄積するが、海底貯留は設備の維持が難しく、コスト抑制も課題となる。

東芝が実験するのは「CCS」と呼ぶ技術。発電所が出した排ガスをアミン溶液という特殊な液体に通し、CO2だけを分離・回収する。海外では北米の内陸部を中心にCCS設備が稼働している。これらはパイプラインを通じてCO2を運ぶ仕組みだ。

海底貯留方式はコストがかさむため海外ではノルウェー沖にしか設置されていない。地震国の日本は立地に適した広大な土地が少ないため、政府は海底貯留方式に絞り戦略を策定した。日本では北海道沖で始まった初の実証実験が20年度ごろまで続く計画だ。・・・

  

インドネシア 大洪水頻発 森林破壊=パーム(油ヤシ)プランテーションが引き金? 

インドネシア・スマトラ島で豪雨、洪水で10人死亡 被害拡大の恐れ AFPBB 19.2.28

【4月28日 AFP】インドネシアのスマトラ(Sumatra)島で、数日間にわたって降り続く豪雨により洪水と土砂崩れが発生し、災害当局によると、28日現在で少なくとも10人が死亡、8人が行方不明となっている。

 豪雨の被害が出ているのは、ブンクル(Bengkulu)州内の9つの地区や町。約1万2000人が避難を余儀なくされたほか、建物や橋、道路が多数損壊した。既に一部の地域では水が引いたものの、現在も孤立している地域があるため、被害の全容は現時点では把握できていないという。

 国家災害対策庁のストポ・プルウォ・ヌグロホ(Sutopo Purwo Nugroho)報道官は、「この災害の影響は拡大する可能性がある」と述べ、洪水で複数の負傷者が出ていると明らかにし、さらに、このまま豪雨が続けば、再び土砂崩れや洪水が起きる恐れがあると警鐘を鳴らした。

 ブンクル州の複数の地域で撮影された航空写真には、増水で堤防が決壊した河川や、冠水した集落が写っている。

10 killed in Bengkulu flood,ANTARA,19.4.28

Bengkulu (ANTARA) - Ten people were reportedly killed and eight others were missing after flood swept through several parts of Bengkulu province on Friday (April 26),
The 10 consisted of two from Bengkulu city, six from Central Bengkulu district. and two from Kepahiang district. Chief of the Bengkulu Provincial Disaster Mitigation Board (BPBD) Rusdi Bakar said on Sunday.
Incessant rains caused several rivers in Bengkulu to overflow their banks on Friday night, flooding several parts of the province.
The flood also caused landslides, cutting off land communications among districts in Bengkulu and between the province and other provinces, including South Sumatra and Lampung.
Bengkulu Governor Rohidin Mersyah said on Saturday the floods hit almost all districts and cities in the province.---------

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Deforestation triggering natural calamities in Indonesia,Deutsche Welle,19.3.27

Palm oil production in Indonesia has been held responsible for cutting down vast swathes of tropical forests and killing biodiversity. Now, deforestation may also be the reason why the region is witnessing flash floods.

Recently, Indonesia was struck by massive floods. After hours of heavy rain in the Sentani area in the province of Papua, flash flooding and landslides killed nearly 90 people and injured 150.

National Disaster Management Agency (BNPN) spokesperson Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said the rain had been extremely heavy, reaching 235.1 mm per hour. "Deforestation of the mountain was getting worse because people cut down trees for firewood and to open illegal plantations," he said.

Indonesian Forum for Environment (WALHI) in Papua province also indicated that the flash flood was caused by deforestation. The organization's head, Aiesh Rumbekwan, explained: "We can see from the logs carried away by the current that the trees were not carried by the slides. They were cut down. This is very clear. So we assume that there was logging above."

Palm plantations destroying natural balance

According to environment watchdog Greenpeace, opening up lands for big plantations for growing oil-producing palms, has been the main cause of deforestation in Indonesia. Last year, the group published the results of an investigation, which revealed that 25 palm oil-producing companies were responsible for denuding 1300 square kilometers of forest cover in Indonesia since 2015.

Greenpeace also highlighted several negative impacts of palm-oil plantations on the environment, humans and the climate. Among others, half of the orangutan population in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo, was destroyed in 16 years. Moreover, deforestation and destruction of peatlands were the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions, which contributed to climate change.

Furthermore, many products people could buy in the supermarkets contained palm oil produced by the agribusiness giant Wilmar, Greepeace said. Popular products included Kitkat, Colgate toothpaste, Dove soap and Head & Shoulders shampoo. Consequently, the organization has been asking people to sign petitions to prevent companies from buying palm oil from Wilmar. It has also criticized and demanded stricter measures from Indonesian government and sanctions for companies who break the rules.

Other causes of deforestation

A recent study published by Environmental Research Letters, titled What causes deforestation in Indonesia, which was based on data gathered between 2001 and 2016, pointed out that large-scale oil palm and timber plantations were the biggest cause of deforestation in Indonesia. However, in recent years their impact on climate had reduced.

According to the research, conversion of forest cover into grassland rose sharply when El Nino caused severe drought fire activity on some parts of Indonesia, particularly in 2016. The study also revealed that road construction and mining activities were important drivers of deforestation in some areas.--------- 

News Focus -- Accelerating rescue operations in flood-hit Sentani,ANTARA,19.3.23

Jakarta (ANTARA) - Indonesia has been hit by at least two major floods during this current transitional period from the rainy to the dry season, as high precipitation still occurs in several regions.
floods have been reported in the provinces of West Java, East Java, Lampung, East Nusa Tenggara, South Sumatra, and Papua, among others. But East Java and Papua have been the worst hit by major flooding over the last several weeks.
In East Java, on March 5, 2019, floods triggered by heavy rains and the overflowing of several rivers, had inundated 15 districts and displaced nearly 12.5 thousand people, mostly in Madiun. Despite the widespread inundation, there were no reports of casualties.
In Papua, however, deadly flooding devastated Sentani and several other sub-districts in Jayapura District, and killed at least 112 people and rendered 94 others missing on March 16, 2019.------

According to the governor, Papua's government will discuss building public service facilities, such as hospitals, schools, and housing for the resettled residents.
"This type of disaster has been repeatedly occurring over a period of time, so the residents must be relocated," he added.
The Environmental Affairs and Forestry Ministry in Jakarta, on March 19, however, denied that the disaster was caused by deforestation.
There was no illegal logging activity in the Sentani areas, according to IB Putera Parthama, the ministry's Director General for River Basin Management.
There were no logs floating or swept away by flood waters in the area, he added.
"Branches and roots of the floating trees were intact. It shows that the trees were not a result of the illegal logging activity (suspected of having) caused the flash floods," he told the press.
Sentani located in the Cycloop mountainous area is prone to flash floods and landslides during heavy rain because the area has a steep slope and an unstable river basin, he said, adding that the flooding was triggered by heavy rains that went on incessantly for six hours.
The forest conversion in Sentani was also not significant, as it covered a total area of 495.47 hectares or 3.3 percent during the 2012-2017 period.
"From 2012 to 2017, the forest area converted into non-forest area reached only 3.3 percent. So, it's not strong enough to associate the disaster with the forest conversion," he said.
According to the 2018 data, the forest coverage in the river basin area in Sentani was around 55 percent, meaning it was good enough.
The ministry, however, has sent a task force to investigate the cause of the flash floods, he remarked.
The task force is headed by M Saparis Sudaryanto, the ministry's Director on Planning and Evaluation of River Basin Management
It will collect data and facts about the floods and landslides in Papua to study them for future solutions.
"I will collect facts as accurately as possible," Sudaryanto said.
The ministry has also set up an information command post to update information on the flooding situation in Sentani.
Indonesia is prone to geological and hydrometeorological disasters. Last year, during the period from January to mid-December, of the 2,427 natural disasters had hit the tropical country, 2,350, or 96.9 percent, were hydrometeorological in nature, such as floods, landslides, and whirlwinds

Eight coal mining sites worsen floods in Bengkulu,ANTARA,19.4.28

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Author:寿
農業情報研究所(WAPIC)=http://www.juno.dti.ne.jp/~tkitaba/の所長・所員・小使いを兼務。原発事故で「明るい農業・農村」の夢を失った老い先短い老人です。かつての行動派も病魔のために身体不如意、情報提供と批評に徹します。

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