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環境関連注目ニュース 19年8月30日

気候変動

Great Barrier Reef outlook very poor, Australia says,BBC,19.8.30

止まらぬ氷河の後退、モンブランに表れる地球温暖化の影響 AFPBB 19.8.30

トランプ政権、メタン排出規制を緩和へ エネルギー大手は異論 AFPBB 19.8.30

Trump administration to relax restrictions on methane, a powerful greenhouse gas,The Washinton Post,19.8.29

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The oil and gas industry is split on the rollback

The Environmental Protection Agency announced Thursday that it plans to loosen federal rules on methane by allowing oil and gas operators to largely police themselves when it comes to preventing the powerful greenhouse gas from leaking out of new wells, pipelines and other infrastructure.

It also challenges the notion, championed under the Obama administration, that the federal government has the authority to regulate methane without first making a detailed determination that it qualifies as a pollutant under the Clean Air Act.

If successful, that change could hamper future administrations from enacting tougher restrictions on methane. Already, the Trump administration has taken several steps to limit the government’s ability to regulate other greenhouse gases in the future, including in a recently finalized rule on carbon dioxide emissions from power plants.

Climate change spurs growth of exotic fruit in Finland,YLE,19.8.29全文を表示

Horticulturist Arno Kasvi marvels at a peach tree growing in Ruissalo, part of the southwestern city of Turku. The tree, which has flourished on a shady slope in the centre of the garden, was a gift and is already 10 years old. Kasvi has been following the stages of the tree’s annual growth cycle.

"The tree has not really been cared for, but it still produces an edible harvest. It grows best in the shade. The problem with growing peaches in Finland is that they begin blooming too early in the year, for example on the walls of houses, even in January. At that time of the year, there are no pollinators around," said Kasvi.

Peaches in a Finnish garden.Minna Rosvall / Yle

Peach trees are not usually covered in a protective blanket in winter, nor are they shielded from the sunlight. This particular tree’s health demonstrates the effect of climate change on home gardens.

"If the tree is cared for, it would yield a more regular harvest. The amount of produce has varied in recent years. Sometimes the peaches come in bucketfuls, like this summer, and other times there are distinctly less," said Kasvi.

Worth trying exotic varieties

The Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) is carrying out extensive research into how climate change is affecting the country. The institute predicts that the temperature will rise by two to seven degrees Celsius while rainfall will increase by six to 20 percent by 2080.

Saila Karhu, a research professor at the institute, unveils a steadily growing grapevine outside its Piikkiö office.

"There was a building here earlier, and the vine would grow on its outer wall. The building has been demolished, but the grapes continue to grow at a steady rate. It’s surprising that authentic varieties of grapes that thrive in Finland have been found, including varieties that can be eaten and used to make wine," she added.

A flourishing grapevine in Piikiö.Minna Rosvall / Yle

Karhu notes that this too is a result of climate change. She expressed astonishment at peaches and apricots not only being able to withstand the Finnish winter but being harvested regularly.

"Sweet cherries could become a new crop, and the commercial cultivation of pears will likely increase significantly. The production area of apples, in turn, will be extended towards the North," she said.

Karhu suggests growing exotic varieties of fruit in home gardens, but she does not recommend cultivating them for commercial purposes. She points out that it is easier to grow annual plants, as you need not worry about them surviving the winters.

Warm winters and quickly melting snow aid plant growth

A magnolia that bloomed last spring outside the institute’s Piikiö office is still flourishing. The beech tree, which was planted in the 1930s, has begun sprouting germinated seeds and reproducing for the first time ever in the past few years.

"Climate change has led to a prolonged growing season, with less snow, and snow melting earlier in the spring. Very cold winter seasons are also expected to decrease, as will their likelihood. This will promote the protection of more delicate plants," said Karhu.

Seeds from a beech tree in Piikkiö.Minna Rosvall / Yle

Additionally, autumn weather will be milder for longer, but it will also be very wet and rainy. This could adversely affect plant dormancy in winter.

"If autumn is fairly warm and long, the plants are in a good position to prepare for winter, and it aids their dormancy," Karhu said.

Eggplant and corn crops thriving

Kasvi encourages fruit cultivators to experiment. He displays eggplants growing in a bed at the University of Turku's botanical garden.

"Eggplants thrive in greenhouses in Finland, but these demonstrate that they flourish in the open as well," Kasvi said.

He then quickly switched to the topic of corn and quinoa.

"Quinoa, like corn, is an Incan grain from South America. Corn is maturing at a high rate right now. The amount of heat is good, as April and May were exceptionally hot and there were no frosty nights. If horticulturists or farmers do not succeed this summer, they should change their fields," Kasvi said.

Story continues after photo. .

Corn cultivators need not worry about the crop surviving winter.Minna Rosvall / Yle

He emphasises that using the same plot of land for several years lets you gain agricultural and horticultural experience, and proposes growing different varieties.

"There are varieties of maize that are easy to cultivate, but I only recommend growing peach trees as a hobby. It is a high maintenance crop compared to corn, for example." Kasvi said, also highlighting the limited yield. "It should be remembered that peach trees bloom as rarely as plum trees. They also need to be pruned, as the tree could crack under the weight of an abundant yield."

<参考>

まだ見ぬ世界には農業に適さない土があるという。北欧が一例だ。サンタクロースの故郷であるフィンランドは、寒冷で肥沃な土壌も少ない、フィンランドの人々は、なぜ自分たちの祖先がフィンランドを選んで定住したのか?と自分たちの生活を面白おかしく笑いの種にする。

白夜の夏は、沼地に無数の蚊が待ち受け、冬は寒くて昼間から真っ暗だ。ゴアテックスに身を包み、タイへ避寒旅行・・・・・となる前に、言語的に類似する民族が暮らすエストニアやハンガリーに住むという選択肢はなかったのか?というのである。(藤井一至 土 地球最後のナゾ 光文社新書 2018年 61-62㌻)

 

森林破壊

Amazon fires clearly linked to deforestation, scientists say Science  30 Aug 2019:Vol. 365, Issue 6456, pp. 853

« La forêt amazonienne brûlée par l’industrie de l’élevage »,.Le Monde,19.8.30

アマゾン森林火災 大豆で育てられる動物の肉を食べる我々にも責任

Dans une tribune au « Monde », Elodie Vieille Blanchard et Frédéric Mesguich, de l’Association végétarienne de France, considèrent que nous sommes également responsables des incendies en Amazonie, car la viande que nous mangeons provient d’animaux nourris au soja produit au Brésil

Quel est l’impact des feux en Amazonie sur le climat ? .Le Monde,19.8.30

アマゾン森林火災の気候への影響は?

Depuis le début de l’année, 44 000 feux ont été comptabilisés dans la forêt amazonienne, perturbant à long terme son rôle dans le cycle de l’eau et dans la régulation du stock de carbone.

Bolivia admits fires have destroyed 1.2m hectares of forest; ecologists demand an end to bill promoting pastures,Merco Press,19.8.29

Fires have destroyed 1.2 million hectares of forest and grasslands in Bolivia this year, the government said on Wednesday, though environmentalists claim the true figure is much greater.

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Author:寿
農業情報研究所(WAPIC)=http://www.juno.dti.ne.jp/~tkitaba/の所長・所員・小使いを兼務。原発事故で「明るい農業・農村」の夢を失った老い先短い老人です。かつての行動派も病魔のために身体不如意、情報提供と批評に徹します。

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