気候変動関係 今日の注目記事 20年1月23日

Davos Special Edition: Royal assent for carbon tax ,FT.com,20.1.23

Carbon taxes get Royal seal of approvalIt is not often that His Royal Highness Prince Charles is mentioned in the same breath as Ursula von der Leyen, European Commission president, or Axel Weber, UBS chairman, and Janet Yellen, the former Federal Reserve chair. However, this happened on Wednesday when the prince sternly told the business and political elites at Davos that it was high time that global leaders got serious about imposing a proper tax on carbon usage.

In some senses, he is a little late to this rhetorical game. After all, a host of economists, ranging from Yellen to Raghuran Rajam to Joseph Stiglitz, to name but a few, have called for a global carbon tax, and last month the IMF issued an admirably clear paper outlining what price would be needed to incentivise the reduction in carbon usage that could hit the Paris accord (around $75 a tonne, as a global average, rather than $2 today.)

Mr Weber, UBS chairman, suggested on Monday that the finance industry was ready to embrace this idea as a reference point for ESG finance. And, on Wednesday, Van de Leyen added her own influential voice to the debate by declaring that Europe will soon introduce “border adjustment mechanisms” (ie., tariffs) on imports from regions of the world which do not penalise carbon usage as much as Europe.------


Climate adviser urges overhaul of UK agriculture,FT.com,20.1.23

‎Target of net zero carbon by 2050 puts nation in ‘race against time’, says report

Reaching the UK’s target of net zero carbon emissions by 2050 will require an overhaul of agriculture, how land is used and people’s diets, the government’s climate adviser outlined on Thursday.

New policies that include tree planting, encouraging low-carbon farming and reducing food waste were crucial, and could drive down land use carbon emissions by almost two-thirds by 2050, according to the Committee on Climate Change’s first in-depth report on agriculture.

“This is one of the most important reports we have ever produced because a change in land use is absolutely essential if we’re going to meet our now statutory requirement of net zero by 2050,” said John Gummer, the CCC’s chairman, known as Lord Deben.

“Major changes are required and action from government is needed quickly if we are to reap the rewards,” Lord Deben said, adding that the UK was in a “race against time”.

Land use — including agriculture, forestry and peatland — is responsible for around a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions and accounted for 12 per cent of the UK’s emissions in 2017. Transport and energy each account for about a quarter of UK emissions, followed by housing (15 per cent).------


Planting crops with trees drives ‘magical’ reforestation,FT.com,20.1.23

‎Turnaround success demonstrates key plank of sustainable farming

Aldo Sánchez surveys a field of lofty banana trees, with cacao plants bursting with fruit nestled beneath. “Two and a half years ago, this was pure pasture,” he says. Indeed, his neighbour’s field is just grass.

Four decades ago, a swath of land including his farm in Jabillos in central Costa Rica was deforested to plant coffee. It was later turned over to cattle, but ranching dried up when prices collapsed. Cacao — the raw material for chocolate — had not been planted since the late 1970s, when the monilia fungus wrecked 80 per cent of the national crop.

“Even 10km away, people couldn’t believe we were planting cacao because the last people to do that were their grandparents,” Mr Sánchez says.

His farm is a successful example of agroforestry — the sustainable combination of crops with trees — that is complementing Costa Rica’s remarkable reforestation in the past three decades.

Today, with exuberant tropical vegetation cloaking its countryside, it is hard to imagine that the Central American nation of 5m people could once have been any greener.

It has built a reputation, and a thriving eco-tourism industry, based on being a biodiverse natural paradise. The country boasts more than two dozen national parks, as well as rainforests, cloud forests, tropical dry forests, conservation areas and incredible wildlife.-----








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